Electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator.
In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between winding currents to generate force within the motor and an electric motor’s magnetic field. In certain applications, for example in the transportation industry with traction motors, electric motors can operate in both motoring and generating or braking modes to also produce electrical energy from mechanical energy.
Electric motors are used to produce linear or rotary force (torque), and should be distinguished from devices such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers that convert electricity into motion but do not generate usable mechanical powers, which are respectively referred to as actuators and transducers.
Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, machine tools, blowers and pumps, power tools ,household appliances, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered with direct current (DC) sources, such as motor vehicles ,from batteries or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, for example from the power grid, inverters or generators. Small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use. The largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, application, type of motion output, and so on.